Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race. . . . We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population. Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Indeed, even today we have not permitted ourselves to reject or feel remorse for this shameful episode. Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it.

Martin Luther King Jr.

America did not conquer the West through superior technology, nor did it demonstrate the advantages of democracy. America “won” the West by blood, brutality, and terror.

David Treuer

In the midst of this American society, so well policed, so sententious, so charitable, a cold selfishness and complete insensibility prevails when it is a question of the natives of the country. . . . This world here belongs to us, they tell themselves every day: the Indian race is destined for final destruction which one cannot prevent and which it is not desirable to delay. Heaven has not made them to become civilized; it is necessary that they die. Besides I do not at all want to get mixed up in it. I will not do anything against them: I will limit myself to providing everything that will hasten their ruin. In time I will have their lands and will be innocent of their death. Satisfied with his reasoning, the American goes to the church where he hears the minister of the gospel repeat every day that all men are brothers, and the Eternal Being who has made them all in like image has given them all the duty to help one another.

Alexis de Tocqueville, notes on visiting the U.S., July 20, 1831

Every year’s advance of our frontier takes in a territory as large as some of the kingdoms of Europe. We are richer by hundreds of millions; the Indian is poorer by a large part of the little that he has. This growth is bringing imperial greatness to the nation; to the Indian it brings wretchedness, destitution, beggary.

Francis A. Walker, commissioner of Indian Affairs, in his 1872 annual report

They made us many promises, more than I can remember, but they never kept but one; they promised to take our land, and they took it.

Quote attributed to Chief Red Cloud, painted on the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs building during protests in 1972

There was not, and there never had been, a legal government by Europeans anywhere in the Americas. Not by any definition, not even by the Europeans’ own definitions and laws. Because no legal government could be established on stolen land.

Leslie Marmon Silko, Almanac of the Dead

When questioned by an anthropologist on what the Indians called America before the white man came, an Indian said simply, “Ours.

Vine Deloria Jr.

It is simple truth that the Indian did not, so long as his native philosophy held sway over his mind, either envy or desire to imitate the splendid achievements of the white man. In his own thought he rose superior to them!

Charles Alexander Eastman

Every third-grade student in the United States is presented with the concept of Europeans discovering America as a “New World” with fertile soil, abundant gifts of nature, and glorious mountains and rivers. Only the most enlightened teachers will explain that this world certainly wasn’t new to the millions of indigenous people who already lived here when Columbus arrived.

Wilma Mankiller

Indians think it is important to remember, while Americans believe it is important to forget.

Paula Gunn Allen

The people of the town . . . have never changed their essential way of life. Their invaders were a long time in conquering them; and now, after four centuries of Christianity, they still pray in Tanoan to the old deities of the earth and sky and make their living from the things that are and have always been within their reach. . . . They have assumed the names and gestures of their enemies, but have held on to their own, secret souls; and in this there is a resistance and an overcoming.

N. Scott Momaday, House Made of Dawn

We who still live do what we must. . . . We honor anniversaries of deaths by cleaning graves and sitting next to them before fires, sharing food with those who will not eat again. We raise children and tell them other things about who they can be and what they are worth: to us, everything. We love each other fiercely, while we live and after we die. We survive; we are savages.

Jesmyn Ward

524 - Sunbeams - Wilbur

Darkfeather Ancheta, left, is pictured with her nephew Eckos Chartraw-Ancheta and her sister Bibiana Ancheta at the edge of Tulalip Bay in Washington State. They are participating in an annual Canoe Journey, where more than one hundred tribes travel for weeks and, upon landing, share traditional knowledge, ancestral songs, and sacred dances.